A few days ago, some agricultural experts told our reporter that in order to ensure food security, Brazil is strengthening technical exchanges through the global layout strategy to improve innovation capacity. I can pay due attention to and learn from Brazil's practice.
Establish joint laboratories in Europe, America, Asia, Africa, Latin America and other countries
In 1996, Brazil formulated an ambitious strategic plan for global agricultural science and technology, with the layout strategy covering all continents except Oceania. The main way is to establish joint laboratories in different types of countries such as the United States, France, the Netherlands, Ghana, the United Kingdom, Germany, China, South Korea, South Africa, Venezuela and Panama. At present, some have completed construction work, while others are actively promoting it. At the same time, cooperation with relevant international organizations will be gradually strengthened.
According to Zhai Huqu, president of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the global plan is supported by special funds arranged by the state finance, and implemented by the Brazilian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The Brazilian Academy of Agricultural Sciences has 37 research centers nationwide, including 9 national special research centers for soil, environment, information, biomedicine, 13 national product centers for soybeans, livestock, forest products, rice, and 15 ecological regional research centers.
In North America, the Brazil United States Joint Laboratory was completed in April 1998. The laboratory is located in the Agricultural Research Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture and is the earliest overseas joint laboratory established by the Brazilian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The research cooperation between the two sides mainly focuses on genetic resources, food safety and nanotechnology. At present, there are 6 permanent experts from Brazil, each with a term of office of 2 years.
In Europe, the Brazil Europe Joint Laboratory is currently under construction in France and the Netherlands. The Pakistan France Joint Laboratory is located in the French Agricultural Research Center, focusing on agricultural economy, natural resources and food technology; The Pakistan Netherlands Joint Laboratory is located in the Research Center of Wageningen University in the Netherlands, and its research fields focus on biotechnology, plant and animal science research, environment, food and social science. In addition, Brazil plans to set up joint laboratories in the United Kingdom and Germany.
In Africa, in April 2008, the Brazilian Academy of Agricultural Sciences set up an office of a similar nature in Accra, the capital of Ghana, with the purpose of transmitting Brazil's scientific and technological knowledge on animal husbandry and forestry development to Africa and promoting technical cooperation. In recent years, Brazil has a close relationship with South Africa. In the fields of plant germplasm resources exchange, soil and water resources utilization, biological control, fruit preservation, bioengineering, etc., Brazil has not only carried out a lot of technical cooperation, but also carried out technology transfer.
In Latin America, the Brazilian Academy of Agricultural Sciences also has offices in Panama City, the capital of Panama, and Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, to promote agricultural science and technology cooperation with these countries.
In Asia, the Brazil Asia Joint Laboratory is proposed to be located in China and South Korea. In May 2009, President Lula of Brazil visited China. In the joint statement signed by the leaders of the two countries, it was specified that the China Brazil Joint Laboratory was located in the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. At present, both sides are actively promoting.
Experts put forward four suggestions
Liu Xu, Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wu Kongming, Researcher Director of the Institute of Plant Protection, Wang Shumin, Researcher of the Institute of Crop Science, Lu Tiegang, Researcher of the Institute of Biotechnology and other experts believe that the domestic and international layout of agricultural research in Brazil is worth learning from. According to the statistics of the World Bank, China's economic strength and agricultural innovation ability are stronger than Brazil's. However, restricted by population and natural resources, China's pressure on food security and ecological security is greater than Brazil's. In view of this, adjusting and coordinating the domestic and international deployment of China's agricultural science and technology work, and incorporating the relevant work arrangements into the national plan, will contribute to the comprehensive, stable and healthy development of agricultural science and technology. Therefore, the experts put forward four suggestions.
First, take the deployment of key laboratories in the agricultural field as the starting point, improve the distribution of scientific and technological forces, and promote the construction of the agricultural science and technology innovation system. The reform of China's agricultural science and technology system has been promoted for many years, but has not achieved the desired results. There is a lack of effective division and cooperation mechanism among institutions at all levels, and low-level duplication of research is common. We can refer to the setting mode of Brazil, concentrate on integrating the advantages of existing scientific research and teaching institutions, set up national agricultural laboratories according to major common technologies and major crops, and set up regional key agricultural laboratories according to natural ecological regions. At the same time, establish organic links between laboratories, define their respective responsibilities, and form an agricultural scientific research system with reasonable division of labor, communication from top to bottom, resource information sharing, and orderly operation.
Second, formulate and implement the global layout strategy as soon as possible. This is an inevitable requirement for the integration of global economy and science and technology. Almost all developed countries have set up joint laboratories or offices in China. However, I did not set up a laboratory in the other country according to the principle of reciprocity. It is suggested that the global layout of China's agricultural science and technology should be started as soon as possible. Joint laboratories for developing countries should focus on the development and utilization of biotechnology and species resources; The main task of the joint laboratory facing developed countries should be to track the international scientific research trends and cultivate scientific and technological talents.
Third, we should use advantageous core technologies to promote the global layout. Technologies such as hybrid rice and animal disease prevention and control can become the "stepping stones" for China's international cooperation in agricultural science and technology. Especially for developing countries, we can carefully study the strategic steps and methods of these core technologies to "go global", so that they can serve the overall strategy of China's agricultural science and technology development.
Fourth, set up special funds for international cooperation in agricultural science and technology. In terms of agricultural science and technology exchange and introduction, there is currently a "948" plan, but the scale of funds is not enough to support global agricultural science and technology cooperation.